Coal Geology & Exploration


The advanced regional grouting is an effective means to prevent and control the water hazard of limestone in coal seam floor, and the fracture grouting projects is a key link to determine the effect of the grouting in floor against water hazard. However, due to the unclear understanding of the fracture initiation mechanism of the injected limestone stratum, the grouting pressure, grout water-cement ratio and other grouting parameters in the process of fracture grouting are not effectively controlled. Thus, it is difficult to guarantee the grouting effect. In order to solve the above problems, numerical simulation calculation was conducted for the fracture grouting in top of Ordovician limestone with the Particle Flow Code (PFC) numerical simulation software, considering the grout water-cement ratio, in-situ stress, and the dip angle and width of weak surface and crack. The results show that: The fracture initiation pressure decreases with the increase of the grout water-cement ratio (1∶1, 2∶1, 3∶1), but increases with the decrease of the difference between the maximum and minimum principal stresses (9, 12 and 15 MPa) under the weak surface and fracture conditions. Besides, the crack initiation pressure decreases with the increase of the width of the weak surface or crack (3, 8, 15 mm) and the angle between the weak surface/crack and the maximum principal stress (30°, 60°, 90°). The initiated cracks propagate along the direction parallel to the maximum principal stress. The fracture initiation pressure decreases with the decrease of strength ratio of weak surface to matrix (0.30, 0.03). In case of weak surface with high strength, the fracture initiation pressure is greater than that under the fracture condition, and the cracks propagate along the matrix. When the grouting hole is located at both ends of the weak surface or in the middle of the crack, the cracks are initiated along the weak surface or at both ends of the crack. When the grouting hole is located in the middle of the weak surface, the cracks propagate along the matrix in the middle position. Generally, the research results are helpful to the effective control of fracture grouting in the advanced regional for floor reconstruction against water hazard, and guide the selection of grouting parameters, thus providing technical support for the development of deep coal resources.


floor regional treatment, top of Ordovician limestone, fracture grouting, fracture initiation mechanism, Particle Flow Code (PFC) numerical analysis




[1] 虎维岳. 华北东部深部岩溶及煤矿岩溶水害特征[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2010,38(2):23−27.

HU Weiyue. The characteristics of karst and deep coal mine karst water hazards in eastern North China[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2010,38(2):23−27.

[2] 柳昭星,董书宁,南生辉,等. 邯邢矿区中奥灰顶部空隙特征显微CT分析[J]. 采矿与安全工程学报,2021,38(2):343−352.

LIU Zhaoxing,DONG Shuning,NAN Shenghui,et al. Micro–CT analysis of void characteristics at the top of middle Ordovician limestone in Hanxing Mining Area[J]. Journal of Mining & Safety Engineering,2021,38(2):343−352.

[3] 董书宁,柳昭星,郑士田,等. 基于岩体宏细观特征的大型帷幕注浆保水开采技术及应用[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(3):1137−1149.

DONG Shuning,LIU Zhaoxing,ZHENG Shitian,et al. Technology and application of large curtain grouting water conservation mining based on macroscopic and mesoscopic characteristics of rock mass[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(3):1137−1149.

[4] 董书宁,刘其声. 华北型煤田中奥陶系灰岩顶部相对隔水段研究[J]. 煤炭学报,2009,34(3):289−292.

DONG Shuning,LIU Qisheng. Study on relative aguiclude existed in mid–Ordovician limestone top in North China coal field[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2009,34(3):289−292.

[5] 董书宁,王皓,张文忠. 华北型煤田奥灰顶部利用与改造判别准则及底板破坏深度[J]. 煤炭学报,2019,44(7):2216−2226.

DONG Shuning,WANG Hao,ZHANG Wenzhong. Judgement criteria with utilization and grouting reconstruction of top Ordovician limestone and floor damage depth in North China coal field[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2019,44(7):2216−2226.

[6] 郑士田. 两淮煤田煤层底板灰岩水害区域超前探查治理技术[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2018,46(4):142−146.

ZHENG Shitian. Advanced exploration and control technology of limestone water hazard in coal seam floor in Huainan and Huaibei coalfields[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2018,46(4):142−146.

[7] 郑安兴,罗先启,陈振华. 基于扩展有限元法的岩体水力劈裂耦合模型[J]. 岩土力学,2019,40(2):799−808.

ZHENG Anxing,LUO Xianqi,CHEN Zhenhua. Hydraulic fracturing coupling model of rock mass based on extended finite element method[J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics,2019,40(2):799−808.

[8] FRANGI A,NOVATI G,SPRINGHETTI R,et al. 3D fracture analysis by the symmetric Galerkin BEM[J]. Computational Mechanics,2002,28(3/4):220–232.

[9] RAO B N,RAHMAN S. An efficient meshless method for fracture analysis of cracks[J]. Computational Mechanics,2000,26(4):398−408.

[10] 袁敬强,陈卫忠,谭贤君,等. 软弱地层注浆的细观力学模拟研究[J]. 岩土力学,2011,32(增刊2):653−659.

YUAN Jingqiang,CHEN Weizhong,TAN Xianjun,et al. Mesomechanical simulation of grouting in weak strata[J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics,2011,32(Sup.2):653−659.

[11] TAN X C,KOU S Q,LINDQVIST P A. Application of the DDM and fracture mechanics model on the simulation of rock breakage by mechanical tools[J]. Engineering Geology,1998,49(3/4):277–284.

[12] 严成增. 模拟水压致裂的另一种二维FDEM–flow方法[J]. 岩土力学,2017,38(6):1789−1796.

YAN Chengzeng. A new two–dimensional FDEM–flow method for simulating hydraulic fracturing[J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics,2017,38(6):1789−1796.

[13] CHEN Tielin,ZHANG Liangyi,ZHANG Dingli. An FEM/VOF hybrid formulation for fracture grouting modelling[J]. Computers and Geotechnics,2014,58:14−27.

[14] 尤田,刘军,吴玉勤,等. 富水粉细砂地层注浆三维颗粒流数值模拟分析[J]. 轨道交通与地下工程,2015,33(6):68−71.

YOU Tian,LIU Jun,WU Yuqin,et al. Numerical simulation analysis of grouting in water–rich sand stratum by three–dimensional particle flow software[J]. Track Traffic & Underground Engineering,2015,33(6):68−71.

[15] ZHANG Zhenlong,SHAO Zhushan,FANG Xiaobo,et al. Research on the fracture grouting mechanism and PFC numerical simulation in loess[J]. Advances in Materials Science & Engineering,2018,2018:1−7.

[16] ZHANG Qi,ZHANG Xiaoping,JI Peiqi. Numerical study of interaction between a hydraulic fracture and a weak plane using the bonded–particle model based on moment tensors[J]. Computers and Geotechnics,2019,105:79−93.

[17] 孙锋,张顶立,陈铁林,等. 土体劈裂注浆过程的细观模拟研究[J]. 岩土工程学报,2010,32(3):474−480.

SUN Feng,ZHANG Dingli,CHEN Tielin,et al. Meso–mechanical simulation of fracture grouting in soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,2010,32(3):474−480.

[18] 秦鹏飞. 不良地质体注浆细观力学模拟研究[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(7):2646−2654.

QIN Pengfei. Study on meso–mechanical simulation of grouting in bad geo–body[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(7):2646−2654.

[19] 耿萍,卢志楷,丁梯,等. 基于颗粒流的围岩注浆动态过程模拟研究[J]. 铁道工程学报,2017,34(3):34−40.

GENG Ping,LU Zhikai,DING Ti,et al. Research on the dynamic process simulation of rock grouting based on particle flow[J]. Journal of Railway Engineering Society,2017,34(3):34−40.

[20] Itasca Consulting Group. PFC2D user’s manual (version3.1)[M]. Minneapolis,Minnesota:Itasca Consulting Group Inc.,2004.

[21] Itasca Consulting Group. PFC2D (particle flow code in 2D) theory and background[R]. Minneapolis,Minnesota:Itasca Consulting Group Inc.,2008.

[22] 赵庆彪,赵兵文,付永刚,等. 大采深矿井地面区域治理奥灰水害关键技术研究[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2016,44(8):14−20.

ZHAO Qingbiao,ZHAO Bingwen,FU Yonggang,et al. Research on key technology to control Ordovician limestone water disaster on surface region of deep mining depth mine[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2016,44(8):14−20.

[23] 胡宝玉. 邯邢矿区深部开采煤层底板奥灰突水机理及防治关键技术[D]. 北京:煤炭科学研究总院,2020.

HU Baoyu. Mechanism of water inrush from Ordovician limestone and key technology of prevention and control in deep mining seam floor of Hanxing Mining Area[D]. Beijing:China Coal Research Institute,2020.

[24] LIU Zhaoxing,DONG Shuning,WANG Hao,et al. Influences on the performance of cement–based grout used to reform the upper middle Ordovician limestone in Hanxing Mining Area[J]. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,2021,14(13):1272.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.