Coal Geology & Exploration


The shallow coal resources in China have been gradually depleted. Under the condition that the deep coal exploitation has been started, the threat from the high-artesian limestone water at the coal seam floor is greater. Deep understanding of the hydrochemical composition control mechanism in the aquifer of the mine area is an important scientific precondition for pertinently carrying out water hazard prevention and control. In order to find out the qualitative and quantitative sources of the conventional ions which in the deep ground water of the Anhui Qianyingzi Coal Mine, the 22 conventional ion concentrations in limestone water were analyzed through multiple mathematical statistics methods (including correlation analysis and R cluster analysis), the ionic ratio method and Unmix model. As indicated by the results, the ground water was medium to weak alkaline. The change range of the total dissolved solids (TDS) was 1 945 mg/L to 5 292 mg/L. Cations can be sequenced by their average mass concentrations (from the larger to the smaller) as: Na+ (717 mg/L), Ca2+ (270 mg/L) and Mg2+ (153 mg/L). Anions can be sequenced by their average mass concentrations as: SO4 2− (2 305 mg/L), HCO3 (293 mg/L) and Cl (186 mg/L). The hydrochemical type of 95% samples was SO4-Na. As indicated by the correlation analysis, cluster analysis and ionic ratio analysis, the hydrochemical composition control factors in the aquifer were mainly the dissolution of sulfate and carbonate minerals (source 1) as well as the dissolution of salt rock and the weathering of the silicate mineral (source 2). As shown in the Unmix model, the average contribution rates of the source 1 and source 2 to the conventional ion concentrations to the ground water were 56% and 44% respectively. The contribution rates of source 1 to the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and SO4 2− were 73%, 68%, 63% and 73%, respectively. The contribution rates of source 2 to the concentrations of Cl and HCO3 were 75% and 66%, respectively. The study results can provide theoretical support for the accurate identification of the water bursting source in the coal mine with the similar conditions.


deep groundwater, hydrochemical characteristics, source analysis, receptor model, Unmix model, Qianyingzi Coal Mine in Anhui




[1] 张平松,欧元超,李圣林. 我国矿井物探技术及装备的发展现状与思考[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2021,49(7):1−15. ZHANG Pingsong,OU Yuanchao,LI Shenglin. Development quo–status and thinking of mine geophysical prospecting technology and equipment in China[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2021,49(7):1−15.

[2] 陈凯,孙林华. 任楼煤矿地下水化学组成及其控制因素分析[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2019,47(10):240−244. CHEN Kai,SUN Linhua. Analysis of chemical composition and control factors of groundwater in Renlou Coal Mine[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2019,47(10):240−244.

[3] 陈陆望,许冬清,殷晓曦,等. 华北隐伏型煤矿区地下水化学及其控制因素分析:以宿县矿区主要突水含水层为例[J]. 煤炭学报,2017,42(4):996−1004. CHEN Luwang,XU Dongqing,YIN Xiaoxi,et al. Analysis on hydrochemistry and its control factors in the concealed coal mining area in North China:A case study of dominant inrush aquifers in Suxian mining area[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2017,42(4):996−1004.

[4] 韩佳明,高举,杜坤,等. 煤矿地下水库水体水化学特征及其成因解析[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2020,48(11):223−231. HAN Jiaming,GAO Ju,DU Kun,et al. Analysis of hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanism in coal mine underground reservoir[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2020,48(11):223−231.

[5] 秦文婧,宋献方,谷洪彪. 基于层次聚类法的柳江煤矿对地下水水质影响分析[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2018,45(3):30−39. QIN Wenjing,SONG Xianfang,GU Hongbiao. Impacts of the Liujiang Coal Mine on groundwater quality based on hierarchical cluster analysis[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,2018,45(3):30−39.

[6] PETER A E,NAGENDRA S M S,NAMBI I M. Comprehensive analysis of inhalable toxic particulate emissions from an old municipal solid waste dumpsite and neighborhood health risks[J]. Atmospheric Pollution Research,2018,9(6):1021−1031.

[7] MURARI V,SINGH N,RANJAN R,et al. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of airborne particulates over central Indo−Gangetic plain[J]. Chemosphere,2020,257:127145.

[8] 尹元畅,唐文雅,邵洒,等. 基于UNMIX模型对大气降雨中水溶性离子来源解析[J]. 环境科学与管理,2016,41(5):150−153. YIN Yuanchang,TANG Wenya,SHAO Sa,et al. Source apportionment of ions in atmospheric precipitation based on UNMIX receptor model[J]. Environmental Science and Management,2016,41(5):150−153.

[9] 艾建超,王宁,杨净. 基于UNMIX模型的夹皮沟金矿区土壤重金属源解析[J]. 环境科学,2014,35(9):3530−3536. AI Jianchao,WANG Ning,YANG Jing. Source apportionment of soil heavy metals in Jiapigou goldmine based on the UNMIX model[J]. Environmental Science,2014,35(9):3530−3536.

[10] XU Jian,GUO Jianyang,LIU Guirong,et al. Historical trends of concentrations,source contributions and toxicities for PAHs in dated sediment cores from five lakes in western China[J]. Science of the Total Environment,2014,470(1):519–526.

[11] HUANG Fang,WANG Xiaoquan,LOU Liping,et al. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques[J]. Water Research,2010,44(5):1562−1572.

[12] CHEN Kai,LIU Qimeng,PENG Weihua,et al. Source apportionment and natural background levels of major ions in shallow groundwater using multivariate statistical method:A case study in Huaibei plain,China[J]. Journal of Environmental Management,2022,301:113806.

[13] NAGARAJU A,BALAJI E,SUN Linhua,et al. Processes controlling groundwater chemistry from Mulakalacheruvu area,Chittoor district,Andhra Pradesh,south India:A statistical approach based on hydrochemistry[J]. Journal of the Geological Society of India,2018,91:425−430.

[14] RAO N S,SUNITHA B,SUN Lei,et al. Mechanisms controlling groundwater chemistry and assessment of potential health risk:A case study from south India[J]. Geochemistry,2019,80(4):125568.

[15] NORDSTROM D K,BALL J W,DONAHOE R J,et al. Groundwater chemistry and water−rock interactions at Stripa[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,1989,53(8):1727−1740.

[16] HENRY R C. Multivariate receptor modeling by N–dimensional edge detection[J]. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems,2003,65(2):179−189.

[17] PIPER A M. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water–analyses[J]. Eos,Transactions American Geophysical Union,1944,25(6):914−928.

[18] BASTIAN M,HEYMANN S,JACOMY M. Gephi:An open source software for exploring and manipulating networks[C]//Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. California:San Jose,2009.

[19] 张泽源,许峰,王世东,等. 保德煤矿奥陶纪灰岩水水化学特征及形成机理[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2020,48(5):81−88. ZHANG Zeyuan,XU Feng,WANG Shidong,et al. Hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanism of Ordovician limestone water in Baode Coal Mine[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2020,48(5):81−88.

[20] 陈松,桂和荣. 宿县矿区太原组灰岩水地球化学特征及地质意义[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2016,43(5):33−41. CHEN Song,GUI Herong. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the limestone aquifers of the Taiyuan Group and its geological significance in the Suxian mining area[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,2016,43(5):33−41.

[21] LIU Lili,TANG Zhou,KONG Ming,et al. Tracing the potential pollution sources of the coastal water in Hong Kong with statistical models combining APCS–MLR[J]. Journal of Environmental Management,2019,245:143−150.

[22] 陈凯,孙林华. 煤矿区地下水常规离子定量化来源解析[J]. 煤矿安全,2019,50(8):173−178. CHEN Kai,SUN Linhua. Source analysis of major ion quantification in groundwater of mine area[J]. Safety in Coal Mines,2019,50(8):173−178.

[23] 汪子涛,刘启蒙,刘瑜. 淮南煤田地下水水化学空间分布及其形成作用[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2019,47(5):40−47. WANG Zitao,LIU Qimeng,LIU Yu. Spatial distribution and formation of groundwater hydrochemistry in Huainan Coalfield[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2019,47(5):40−47.

[24] SUN Linhua. Statistical analyses of groundwater chemistry in coal mine and its hydrological implications[J]. Journal of Applied Science and Engineering,2017,20(3):335−344.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.