Coal Geology & Exploration


Kaolin is a common inorganic mineral in nature, which can promote the growth and metabolism of microorganisms. There is a large amount of kaolin in coal, however, there are few reports about its bio-gas production of coal. In order to investigate the effect of kaolin on biogas production, the coal obtained from Yulin, Shaanxi Province was taken as the research object, domesticated microorganisms were taken as the research flora, and different qualities of kaolin were added into the culture media to make biological simulation of gas production. The changes of CH4 content, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration, coenzyme F420 content, organic functional groups of coal and microbial community structure before and after gas production were studied by gas chromatograph, ELISA microplate analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Illumina high throughout sequencing. The results show that kaolin affected the biological gas production process at different levels, and 0-8.0% kaolin supplementation could be divided into two ranges, 0-1.0% and 2.0%-8.0%. Methane production amount, cumulative methane production amount and concentration of F420 show a trend of increasing first and then decreasing in these two ranges, while acetic acid and VFAs concentration show an opposite trend. After 50 days of simulated biological gas production, the cumulative methane production of the experimental group (0.5%) was up to 216 μmol/g coal, which was 55.4% higher than that of the blank group. Kaolin could increase the content of coenzyme F420 up to 48.93 ng/L. The addition of kaolin contributes to the utilization of -OH, phenol-OH, -NH- and -NH2 in coal by microorganisms. The effect of kaolin on the bacterial population structure in the coal biogas production system was not obvious, and only Firmicutes increased first and then decreased in 0-1.0% and 2.0%-8.0% addition ranges. In the contrast, the addition of kaolin has an obvious influence on the variation of Archaea diversity. Archaea were mainly assigned to Euryarchaeota, while Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were the most abundant species. Euryarchaeota and Methanosarcina show a consistent change trend with cumulative methane production and F420 in the interval of 0-1.0% and 2.0%-8.0%, while Methanobacterium and VFAs showed a consistent change trend. It presents that the supplement of kaolin affects the bio-simulated gas production of Yulin coal. Its methane production VFAs, F420 enzyme activity, microbial community structure and organic functional group composition in coal have all changed. The present work provides a reference for studying the role of inorganic minerals in biogenic coalbed methane production in future.


biogenic coal bed methane, kaolin, microbial community structure, volatile fatty acid, F420, Yunlin in Shaanxi Province




[1] 段凯鑫,郭红光,成雅彤. 生物煤层气的文献计量与发展综述[J]. 煤矿安全,2020,51(8):206−212. DUAN Kaixin,GUO Hongguang,CHENG Yatong. A review of bibliometrics and development of biological coalbed methane[J]. Safety in Coal Mines,2020,51(8):206−212.

[2] WANG Han,LIN Hai,DONG Yingbo,et al. Experiments on the gas production of brown coal degraded by exogenous methanogens[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,2012,39(6):813−817.

[3] GREEN M S,FLANEGAN K C,GILCREASE P C. Characterization of a methanogenic consortium enriched from a coalbed methane well in the Powder River Basin,USA[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2008,76:34−45.

[4] JEE H S,NISHIO N,NAGAI S. Influence of redox potential on biomethanation of H2 and CO2 by Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum in Eh–STAT batch cultures[J]. Journal of General & Applied Microbiology,1987,33(5):401−408.

[5] 马力通,刘云颖,董利超,等. 苯甲酸对褐煤生物甲烷化的影响[J]. 煤炭转化,2019,42(1):73−77. MA Litong,LIU Yunying,DONG Lichao,et al. Effects of benzoic acid on lignite biomethanation[J]. Coal Conversion,2019,42(1):73−77.

[6] 苏现波,徐影,吴昱,等. 盐度、pH对低煤阶煤层生物甲烷生成的影响[J]. 煤炭学报,2011,36(8):1302−1306. SU Xianbo,XU Ying,WU Yu,et al. Effect of salinity and pH on biogenic methane production of low–rank coal[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2011,36(8):1302−1306.

[7] 王爱宽,秦勇,邵培. 实验室条件下褐煤生物气生成的化学影响因素[J]. 煤炭学报,2016,41(4):948−953. WANG Aikuan,QIN Yong,SHAO Pei. Chemical factors influencing lignite biogenic gas production in laboratory condition[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2016,41(4):948−953.

[8] TACO–VASQUEZ S,HOLTZAPPLE M T. Conversion of isopropanol and mixed alcohols to hydrocarbons using HZSM–5 catalyst in the MixAlco™ process. Part 2:Studies at 5000 kPa (abs)[J]. AIChE Journal,2016,62(5):1707−1715.

[9] STRAPOC D,MASTALERZ M,DAWSON K,et al. Biogeochemistry of microbial coal–bed methane[J]. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences,2011,39:617−656.

[10] 鲍园,琚宜文,韦重韬,等. 热解和生物降解对木本泥炭生烃与结构演化的红外光谱响应[J]. 光谱学与光谱分析,2015,35(3):603−608. BAO Yuan,JU Yiwen,WEI Chongtao,et al. Infrared spectrum studies of hydrocarbon generation and structure evolution of peat samples during pyrolysis and microbial degradation[J]. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis,2015,35(3):603−608.

[11] 邓寅生,赵福玲. 煤矸石矿井填充过程中微生物作用对环境的影响[J]. 煤炭学报,2008,33(9):1045−1048. DENG Yinsheng,ZHAO Fuling. Environment impact caused by the microorganism action in the process of using gangue packed for mine[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2008,33(9):1045−1048.

[12] 邵培. 中低煤级煤有机地球化学特征及其对生物气生成的影响[D]. 徐州:中国矿业大学,2016.

SHAO Pei. Organic geochemical characteristics of low and middle rank coals and their effects on biogas generation[D]. Xuzhou:China University of Mining and Technology,2016.

[13] CYGAN R T,TAZAKI K. Interactions of kaolin minerals in the environment[J]. Elements,2014,10(3):195−200.

[14] AMS D A,MAURICE P A,HERSMAN L E,et al. Siderophore production by an aerobic Pseudomonas mendocina bacterium in the presence of kaolinite[J]. Chemical Geology,2002,188(3):161−170.

[15] 王蕾,夏金兰,朱泓睿,等. 微生物–矿物相互作用及界面显微分析研究进展[J]. 微生物学通报,2017,44(3):716−725. WANG Lei,XIA Jinlan,ZHU Hongrui,et al. Progress on research of microbe–mineral interaction and interfacial micro–analysis[J]. Microbiology China,2017,44(3):716−725.

[16] CUADROS J. Clay minerals interaction with microorganisms:A review[J]. Clay Minerals,2017,52(2):235−261.

[17] IZQUIERDO–CAÑAS P M,LÕPEZ–MARTĺN R,GARCĺA–ROMERO E,et al. Effect of kaolin silver complex on the control of populations of Brettanomyces and acetic acid bacteria in wine[J]. Journal of Food Science and Technology,2018,55(5):1823−1831.

[18] 张倩,何环,刘冬雪,等. 大柳塔长焰煤中灰分和无机矿物对生物产气的影响[J]. 微生物学报,2020,60(6):1232−1245. ZHANG Qian,HE Huan,LIU Dongxue,et al. Effect of ash and inorganic minerals in Daliuta long–flame coal on biogas production[J]. Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2020,60(6):1232−1245.

[19] HWANG S,TATE–III R L. Interactions of clay minerals with Arthrobacter Crystallopoietes:Starvation,survival and 2–hydroxypyridine catabolism[J]. Biology and Fertility of Soils,1997,24(3):335−340.

[20] SHAO Pei,WANG Aikuan,WANG Wenfeng. Effect of chemical structure of lignite and high–volatile bituminous coal on the generation of biogenic coalbed methane[J]. Fuel,2019,245:212−225.

[21] 占迪. 产气相关微生物在褐煤表面的分布及其相互作用研究[D]. 徐州:中国矿业大学,2019.

ZHAN Di. Distribution and interaction of gas–producing microorganisms on lignite surface[D]. Xuzhou:China University of Mining and Technology,2019.

[22] 赵晗,何环,王江泽,等. 内蒙胜利褐煤生物产气前后微生物群落变化[J]. 煤炭学报,2019,44(4):1224−1231. ZHAO Han,HE Huan,WANG Jiangze,et al. Variation of microbial community before and after biogas production with Shengli lignite in Inner Mongolia[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2019,44(4):1224−1231.

[23] 王爱宽,秦勇,林玉成,等. 褐煤中天然产甲烷菌富集培养与生物气产出模拟[J]. 高校地质学报,2010,16(1):80−85. WANG Aikuan,QIN Yong,LIN Yucheng,et al. Enrichment and cultivation of natural methanogen and simulation of biogenetic gas generation from brown coal samples[J]. Geological Journal of China Universities,2010,16(1):80−85.

[24] ALI M L,SALAM B,SHAKIL S M F. Biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cow dung using kaolin as an additive[J]. Journal of Modern Science and Technology,2016,4(1):128−134.

[25] CHEN Hao,HE Xiaomin,RONG Xingmin,et al. Adsorption and biodegradation of carbaryl on montmorillonite,kaolinite and goethite[J]. Applied Clay Science,2009,46:102−108.

[26] WU Huayong,CHEN Wenli,RONG Xingmin,et al. Soil colloids and minerals modulate metabolic activity of Pseudomonas putida measured using microcalorimetry[J]. Geomicrobiology Journal,2014,7(31):590−596.

[27] QU Chenchen,QIAN Shufang,CHEN Liang,et al. Size–dependent bacterial toxicity of hematite particles[J]. Environmental Science and Technology,2019,53(14):8147−8156.

[28] 杨秀清,梁祺,韩作颖. 乙醇对生物成气过程中煤地质微生物菌群结构及产气途径的影响[J]. 山西大学学报(自然科学版),2019,42(4):941−950. YANG Xiuqing,LIANG Qi,HAN Zuoying. Effect of ethanol on the structure and gas production pathways of coal geological microorganisms in biogas production process[J]. Journal of Shanxi University(Natural Science Edition),2019,42(4):941−950.

[29] 蒋滔,王冰,韦秀丽,等. 川渝养殖场沼气工程运行状况与沼液生物学特性研究[J]. 太阳能学报,2021,42(2):239−246. JIANG Tao,WANG Bing,WEI Xiuli,et al. Study on operation status of biogas plants and biological characteristics of biogas slurry in livestock farms of Chongqing and Sichuan Province[J]. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica,2021,42(2):239−246.

[30] SU Xianbo,ZHAO Weizhong,XIA Daping. The diversity of hydrogen–producing bacteria and methanogens within an in situ coal seam[J]. Biotechnology for Biofuels,2018,11:245.

[31] ÜNAL B,PERRY V R,SHETH M,et al. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water[J]. Frontiers in Microbiology,2012,3:175.

[32] 刘建民,王保玉,田永东,等. 生物成因煤层气研究现状及对存在相关问题的思考[J]. 中国煤层气,2013,10(3):18−22. LIU Jianmin,WANG Baoyu,TIAN Yongdong,et al. Research status on biogenic coalbed methane and discussion on the present issues for coalbed methane[J]. China Coalbed Methane,2013,10(3):18−22.

[33] 宋燕莉. 赵庄矿区煤层水产气菌群计数和物种分类分析[J]. 能源与节能,2016(11):51−53. SONG Yanli. Analysis of gas aquatic colony–count and species classification in coal seam of Zhaozhuang mining area[J]. Energy and Energy Conservation,2016(11):51−53.

[34] 杨钰婷,陈瑾,陈姗姗,等. 群感效应对电活性微生物胞外电子传递的影响[J]. 微生物学报,2020,60(11):2399−2411. YANG Yuting,CHEN Jin,CHEN Shanshan,et al. Advances in understanding the impact of quorum sensing on extracellular electron transfer of electroactive microorganisms[J]. Acta Microbiologica Sinica,2020,60(11):2399−2411.

[35] 向婉丽,陆现彩,陆昀乔,等. 含方解石铜矿石微生物氧化作用的实验研究[J]. 矿物岩石地球化学通报,2014,33(6):764−771. XIANG Wanli,LU Xiancai,LU Yunqiao,et al. Experimental study on the microbial oxidation of chalcopyrite in calcite–boaring ore[J]. Bulletin of Mineralogy,Petrology and Geochemistry,2014,33(6):764−771.

[36] 常长越,王宁,党康,等. 印染废水驯化的厌氧颗粒污泥微生物的动态变化[J]. 水处理技术,2021,47(3):16−21. CHANG Zhangyue,WANG Ning,DANG Kang,et al. Dynamic changes of anaerobic granular sludge microorganisms acclimated in printing and dyeing wastewater[J]. Technology of Water Treatment,2021,47(3):16−21.

[37] HE Huan,HAN Yaxin,JIN Decai,et al. Microbial consortium in a non–production biogas coal mine of eastern China and its methane generation from lignite[J]. Energy Sources,Part A:Recovery,Utilization,and Environmental Effects,2016,38(10):1377−1384.

[38] 方伟,余晓,王晶,等. 施加石灰石粉和微生物肥料对发病山核桃林土壤化学性质和微生物群落的影响[J]. 浙江农林大学学报,2020,37(2):273−283. FANG Wei,YU Xiao,WANG Jing,et al. Effects of applying limestone powder and microbial fertilizer on soil chemical properties and microbial community in the diseased carya cathayensis woodland[J]. Journal of Zhejiang A & F University,2020,37(2):273−283.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.