Coal Geology & Exploration


GUO Chen, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China; Geological Research Institute for Coal Green Mining, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, ChinaFollow
QIN Yong, Key Laboratory of CBM Resources and Reservoir Formation Process, Ministry of Education, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, ChinaFollow
YI Tongsheng, Guizhou Bureau of Coal Geological Exploration, Guiyang 550008, China
MA Dongmin, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China; Geological Research Institute for Coal Green Mining, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
WANG Shengquan, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China; Geological Research Institute for Coal Green Mining, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
SHI Qingmin, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China; Geological Research Institute for Coal Green Mining, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
BAO Yuan, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China; Geological Research Institute for Coal Green Mining, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
CHEN Yue, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China
QIAO Junwei, College of Geology and Environment, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Support for Coal Green Exploitation, Xi’an 710054, China; Geological Research Institute for Coal Green Mining, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
LU Lingling, Aerophoto Grammetry and Remote Sensing Bureau, China National Administration of Coal Geology, Xi’an 710199, China


Coalbed methane (CBM) co-production is an important way to improve the efficiency of CBM development in multi-seam areas, but the special nature of reservoir formation makes the co-mining method and production effect complex and variable, which presents challenges for efficient development. Experts in the field of CBM from China have carried out a lot of basic research and engineering practice on CBM reservoir formation and the feasibility of co-production in multiple seams, which have gained fruitful results, providing strong support for deepening the CBM geological theory and promoting industrial development. To provide reference for subsequent research, engineering implementation and industrial construction, this paper systematically analyzes and reviews the latest research progress in the field of CBM co-production geology in China from four aspects: reservoir formation theory of stacked CBM systems; co-production geological constraints; co-production feasibility identification method; and co-production reservoir damage. The main understandings can be summarized as follows. (1) The sequence gas control mechanism of the accumulation of the stacked CBM systems and the later modification effect of rock formation and ground stress are deepened. The hydrogeochemical closed index of coal-measure groundwater environment is constructed, which provides a new parameter to identify the stacked gas-bearing systems and hydrodynamic conditions, and three types of stacked geological patterns of gas-bearing systems (growth type, decay type and stable type) are identified by using fluid pressure profiles. The concept of stacked CBM system is further extended to the category of coal measure gas, and the theory and method system of “co-mining compatibility” of stacked gas-bearing systems based on coal-measure composite reservoirs is proposed and applied to the pilot demonstration project of coal-measure gas co-production, which has a chieved preliminary results. (2) The Carboniferous-Permian (Taiyuan-Shanxi Formation) in North China and Late Permian (Changxing-Longtan Formation) in Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan are the hotspot areas for CBM co-production research and engineering practice, and the fluid pressure system and permeability differences are the most concerned geological factors in co-production. The difference in hydrodynamic conditions and fluid supply capacity of Shanxi Formation and Taiyuan Formation is an important factor limiting the CBM co-production in North China. The maximum inter-seam span, cumulative thickness, coal body structure of the coal seam in co-production in Western Guizhou and Eastern Yunnan have received more attention, and interference from shallow groundwater is the key restricting the efficiency of CBM co-production in the Zhijin Block. (3) Productivity analysis, physical simulation, numerical simulation, and geochemical analysis of produced water are important methods to identify the feasibility and interference of CBM co-production. The basic idea, technical template and evaluation process for analyzing the produced water source and identifying the degree of fluid interference in the co-production wells based on the geochemistry of produced water, as well as the production layer contribution analysis method based on the peaking and identification of the gas-production curve, have been proposed. The continuous maturity and innovation of technical methods provide strong support for the optimization and efficiency improvement of CBM co-production engineering. (4) CBM co-production is more sensitive to geological conditions and engineering disturbances, and is prone to induce reservoir damage, involving Jamin effect and airlock damage induced by production layer exposure, as well as stress-sensitive and velocity-sensitive damage induced by the pressure system and permeability differences. Homogenized reservoir reconstruction, separated-pressure system development (separated-time or separated-space), and refined drainage design and control are effective ways to reduce reservoir damage.

Funding Information



CBM co-production, geological research progress, stacked gas-bearing system, interference discrimination, reservoir damage, produced-water, coal-measure gas


[1] 秦勇,熊孟辉,易同生,等. 论多层叠置独立含煤层气系统—以贵州织金–纳雍煤田水公河向斜为例[J]. 地质论评,2008,54(1):65−70. QIN Yong,XIONG Menghui,YI Tongsheng,et al. On unattached multiple superposed coalbed−methane system:In a case of the Shuigonghe syncline,Zhijin−Nayong coalfield,Guizhou[J]. Geological Review,2008,54(1):65−70.

[2] 秦勇,申建,沈玉林. 叠置含气系统共采兼容性—煤系“三气”及深部煤层气开采中的共性地质问题[J]. 煤炭学报,2016,41(1):14−23. QIN Yong,SHEN Jian,SHEN Yulin. Joint mining compatibility of superposed gas−bearing systems:A general geological problem for extraction of three natural gases and deep CBM in coal series[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2016,41(1):14−23.

[3] 孟召平,刘翠丽,纪懿明. 煤层气/页岩气开发地质条件及其对比分析[J]. 煤炭学报,2013,38(5):728−736. MENG Zhaoping,LIU Cuili,JI Yiming. Geological conditions of coalbed methane and shale gas exploitation and their comparison analysis[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2013,38(5):728−736.

[4] 曹代勇,姚征,李靖. 煤系非常规天然气评价研究现状与发展趋势[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2014,42(1):89−92. CAO Daiyong,YAO Zheng,LI Jing. Evaluation status and development trend of unconventional gas in coal measure[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2014,42(1):89−92.

[5] 傅雪海,德勒恰提·加娜塔依,朱炎铭,等. 煤系非常规天然气资源特征及分隔合采技术[J]. 地学前缘,2016,23(3):36−40. FU Xuehai,JIANATAYI D,ZHU Yanming,et al. Resources characteristics and separated reservoirs drainage of unconventional gas in coal measures[J]. Earth Science Frontiers,2016,23(3):36−40.

[6] 梁冰,石迎爽,孙维吉,等. 中国煤系“三气”成藏特征及共采可能性[J]. 煤炭学报,2016,41(1):167−173. LIANG Bing,SHI Yingshuang,SUN Weiji,et al. Reservoir forming characteristics of “the three gases” in coal measure and the possibility of commingling in China[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2016,41(1):167−173.

[7] ZOU Caineng,YANG Zhi,HUANG Shipeng,et al. Resource types,formation,distribution and prospects of coal−measure gas[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,2019,46(3):451−462.

[8] 倪小明,苏现波,李广生. 樊庄地区3#和15#煤层合层排采的可行性研究[J]. 天然气地球科学,2010,21(1):144−149. NI Xiaoming,SU Xianbo,LI Guangsheng. Feasibility of multi–layer drainage for No.3 and No.15 coal seams in the Fanzhuang area[J]. Natural Gas Geoscience,2010,21(1):144−149.

[9] 李国彪,李国富. 煤层气井单层与合层排采异同点及主控因素[J]. 煤炭学报,2012,37(8):1354−1358. LI Guobiao,LI Guofu. Study on the differences and main controlling factors of the coalbed methane wells between single layer and multi−layer drainage[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2012,37(8):1354−1358.

[10] 汪万红,郑玉柱. 陕西省吴堡矿区煤层气井产层组合研究[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2012,40(5):31−33. WANG Wanhong,ZHENG Yuzhu. Combination of gas−producing layers of CBM wells in Wubu mining area[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2012,40(5):31−33.

[11] 孟艳军,汤达祯,许浩,等. 煤层气开发中的层间矛盾问题—以柳林地区为例[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2013,41(3):29−33. MENG Yanjun,TANG Dazhen,XU Hao,et al. Interlayer contradiction problem in coalbed methane development:A case study in Liulin area[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2013,41(3):29−33.

[12] 赵俊龙,汤达祯,林文姬,等. 韩城矿区煤层气井分层合采产能特征及分布模式[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2015,43(9):80−86. ZHAO Junlong,TANG Dazhen,LIN Wenji,et al. Productivity characteristics and distribution modes of multi−layer drainage coalbed methane wells in Hancheng mining area[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2015,43(9):80−86.

[13] 康永尚,陈晶,张兵,等. 沁水盆地寿阳勘探区煤层气井排采水源层判识[J]. 煤炭学报,2016,41(9):2263−2272. KANG Yongshang,CHEN Jing,ZHANG Bing,et al. Identification of aquifers influencing the drainage of coalbed methane wells in Shouyang exploration area,Qinshui Basin[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2016,41(9):2263−2272.

[14] 郭晨,秦勇,夏玉成,等. 基于氢、氧同位素的煤层气合排井产出水源判识:以黔西地区比德–三塘盆地上二叠统为例[J]. 石油学报,2017,38(5):493−501. GUO Chen,QIN Yong,XIA Yucheng,et al. Source discrimination of produced water from CBM commingling wells based on the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes:A case study of the Upper Permian,Bide−Santang Basin,western Guizhou area[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,2017,38(5):493−501.

[15] DOW W G. Application of oil−correlation and source−rock data to exploration in Williston Basin[J]. AAPG Bulletin,1974,58(7):1253−1262.

[16] MAGOON L B. Petroleum systems of the United States[J]. US Geological Survey Bulletin,1988,1870:2−15.

[17] MAGOON L B,DOW W G. The petroleum system−from source to trap[J]. American Association of Petroleum Geologists,1994,60:1−24.

[18] 张厚福,孙红军,梅红. 多旋回构造变动区的油气系统[J]. 石油学报,1999,20(1):8−12. ZHANG Houfu,SUN Hongjun,MEI Hong. The petroleum system in the region of poly cyclic tectonic movement[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,1999,20(1):8−12.

[19] 赵文智,何登发,池英柳,等. 中国复合含油气系统的基本特征与勘探技术[J]. 石油学报,2001,22(1):6−13. ZHAO Wenzhi,HE Dengfa,CHI Yingliu,et al. Major characteristics and exploration technology of multi−source petroleum systems in China[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,2001,22(1):6−13.

[20] 刘焕杰,秦勇,桑树勋. 山西南部煤层气地质[M]. 徐州:中国矿业大学出版社,1998.

[21] SU Xianbo,LIN Xiaoying,ZHAO Mengjun,et al. The Upper Paleozoic coalbed methane system in the Qinshui Basin,China[J]. AAPG Bulletin,2005,89(1):81−100.

[22] 朱志敏,沈冰,路爱平,等. 阜新盆地白垩系阜新组煤层气系统[J]. 石油勘探与开发,2007,34(2):181−186. ZHU Zhimin,SHEN Bing,LU Aiping,et al. Cretaceous Fuxin Formation coalbed methane system in Fuxin Basin[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,2007,34(2):181−186.

[23] SHEN Yulin,QIN Yong,WANG G G X,et al. Sedimentary control on the formation of a multi−superimposed gas system in the development of key layers in the sequence framework[J]. Marine and Petroleum Geology,2017,88:268−281.

[24] 杨兆彪,秦勇,陈世悦,等. 多煤层储层能量垂向分布特征及控制机理[J]. 地质学报,2013,87(1):139−144. YANG Zhaobiao,QIN Yong,CHEN Shiyue,et al. Controlling mechanism and vertical distribution characteristics of reservoir energy of multi−coalbeds[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica,2013,87(1):139−144.

[25] 杨兆彪,秦勇. 地应力条件下的多层叠置独立含气系统的调整研究[J]. 中国矿业大学学报,2015,44(1):70−75. YANG Zhaobiao,QIN Yong. A study of the unattached multiple superposed coalbed−methane system under stress conditions[J]. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology,2015,44(1):70−75.

[26] 郭晨,卢玲玲. 黔西煤层气成藏特性空间分异及其对开发的启示[J]. 煤炭学报,2016,41(8):2006−2016. GUO Chen,LU Lingling. Spatial distribution and variation of coalbed methane reservoir characteristics and its significance for CBM development in western Guizhou[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2016,41(8):2006−2016.

[27] XU Hongjie,SANG Shuxun,YANG Jingfen,et al. Selection of suitable engineering modes for CBM development in zones with multiple coalbeds:A case study in western Guizhou Province,Southwest China[J]. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering,2016,36:1264−1275.

[28] CHEN Shida,TANG Dazhen,TAO Shu,et al. In–situ stress,stress−dependent permeability,pore pressure and gas−bearing system in multiple coal seams in the Panguan area,western Guizhou,China[J]. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering,2018,49:110−122.

[29] JU Wei,YANG Zhaobiao,QIN Yong,et al. Characteristics of in–situ stress state and prediction of the permeability in the Upper Permian coalbed methane reservoir,western Guizhou region,SW China[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2018,165:199−211.

[30] ZHAO Junlong,TANG Dazhen,LIN Wenji,et al. In–situ stress distribution and its influence on the coal reservoir permeability in the Hancheng area,eastern margin of the Ordos Basin,China[J]. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering,2019,61:119−132.

[31] PASHIN J C. Variable gas saturation in coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin:Implications for exploration and production[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2010,82(3/4):135−146.

[32] SHAO Yubao,GUO Yinghai,QIN Yong,et al. Distribution characteristic and geological significance of rare earth elements in Lopingian mudstone of Permian,Panxian County,Guizhou Province[J]. Mining Science and Technology(China),2011,21(4):469−476.

[33] TANG Shuling,TANG Dazhen,TANG Jianchao,et al. Controlling factors of coalbed methane well productivity of multiple superposed coalbed methane systems:A case study on the Songhe mine field,Guizhou,China[J]. Energy Exploration & Exploitation,2017,35(6):665−684.

[34] CHEN Shida,TANG Dazhen,TAO Shu,et al. Coal reservoir heterogeneity in multicoal seams of the Panguan syncline,western Guizhou,China:Implication for the development of superposed CBM–bearing systems[J]. Energy & Fuels,2018,32(8):8241−8253.

[35] 郭晨. 多层叠置含煤层气系统及其开发模式优化:以黔西比德–三塘盆地上二叠统为例[D]. 徐州:中国矿业大学,2015.

GUO Chen. Multi–layer superposed CBM system and drainage model optimization:In the case of the Upper Permian Bide−Santang Basin[D]. Xuzhou:China University of Mining and Technology,2015.

[36] 秦勇. 中国煤系气共生成藏作用研究进展[J]. 天然气工业,2018,38(4):26−36. QIN Yong. Research progress of symbiotic accumulation of coal measure gas in China[J]. Natural Gas Industry,2018,38(4):26−36.

[37] 秦勇,吴建光,申建,等. 煤系气合采地质技术前缘性探索[J]. 煤炭学报,2018,43(6):1504−1516. QIN Yong,WU Jianguang,SHEN Jian,et al. Frontier research of geological technology for coal measure gas joint–mining[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2018,43(6):1504−1516.

[38] 秦勇,吴建光,李国璋,等. 煤系气开采模式探索及先导工程示范[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(7):2513−2522. QIN Yong,WU Jianguang,LI Guozhang,et al. Patterns and pilot project demonstration of coal measures gas production[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(7):2513−2522.

[39] 秦勇. 煤系气聚集系统与开发地质研究战略思考[J]. 煤炭学报,2021,46(8):2387−2399. QIN Yong. Strategic thinking on research of coal measure gas accumulation system and development geology[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2021,46(8):2387−2399.

[40] 秦勇,申建,史锐. 中国煤系气大产业建设战略价值与战略选择[J/OL]. 煤炭学报:1–19[2022–2–18]. https://doi.org/10.13225/j.cnki.jccs.YG21.1616.

QIN Yong,SHEN Jian,SHI Rui. Strategic value and choice on construction of CMG industry in China[J/OL]. Journal of China Coal Society:1–19[2022–2–18]. https://doi.org/10.13225/j.cnki.jccs.YG21.1616.

[41] 秦勇,申建,沈玉林,等. 苏拉特盆地煤系气高产地质原因及启示[J]. 石油学报,2019,40(10):1147−1157. QIN Yong,SHEN Jian,SHEN Yulin,et al. Geological causes and inspirations for high production of coal measure gas in Surat Basin[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,2019,40(10):1147−1157.

[42] 王振云,唐书恒,孙鹏杰,等. 沁水盆地寿阳区块3号和9号煤层合层排采的可行性研究[J]. 中国煤炭地质,2013,25(11):21−26. WANG Zhenyun,TANG Shuheng,SUN Pengjie,et al. Feasibility study on multi–layer drainage for Nos.3 and 9 coal seams in Shouyang block,Qinshui Basin[J]. China Coal Geology,2013,25(11):21−26.

[43] 张政,秦勇,傅雪海. 沁南煤层气合层排采有利开发地质条件[J]. 中国矿业大学学报,2014,43(6):1019−1024. ZHANG Zheng,QIN Yong,FU Xuehai. The favorable developing geological conditions for CBM multi –layer drainage in southern Qinshui Basin[J]. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology,2014,43(6):1019−1024.

[44] 熊章凯,李瑞,王生维,等. 煤层气合层排采流体产出特征及其控制因素[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2018,46(6):143−148. XIONG Zhangkai,LI Rui,WANG Shengwei,et al. Fluid output characteristics and controlling factors of CBM multi–layer drainage[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2018,46(6):143−148.

[45] 谢学恒,李小龙,陈贞龙,等. 延川南地区2号和10号煤层分压合采的可行性研究[J]. 油气藏评价与开发,2011,1(3):65−69. XIE Xueheng,LI Xiaolong,CHEN Zhenlong,et al. Research on the feasibility of layered fracture and commingled water drainage & gas production for No.2 and No.10 coal seams in Yanchuannan area[J]. Reservoir Evaluation and Development,2011,1(3):65−69.

[46] 吴双,汤达祯,许浩,等. 临汾地区煤层气井产层组合方式对产能的影响研究[J]. 煤炭工程,2015,47(12):93−96. WU Shuang,TANG Dazhen,XU Hao,et al. Impact of producing layers combination on capacity of coalbed methane well in Linfen Block[J]. Coal Engineering,2015,47(12):93−96.

[47] 巢海燕,王延斌,葛腾泽,等. 地层供液能力差异对煤层气合层排采的影响:以大宁–吉县地区古驿背斜西翼为例[J]. 中国矿业大学学报,2017,46(3):606−613. CHAO Haiyan,WANG Yanbin,GE Tengze,et al. Difference in liquid supply capacity of coal seams and its influence on multi –layer drainage of coalbed methane:Taking the west limb of Guyi anticline in Daning–Jixian region as an example[J]. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology,2017,46(3):606−613.

[48] 孟尚志,李勇,王建中,等. 煤系“三气”单井筒合采可行性分析:基于现场试验井的讨论[J]. 煤炭学报,2018,43(1):168−174. MENG Shangzhi,LI Yong,WANG Jianzhong,et al. Co–production feasibility of “Three gases” in coal measures:Discussion based on field test well[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2018,43(1):168−174.

[49] 杨兆中,刘云锐,张平,等. 滇东黔西地区多层叠置煤层压裂分层决策方法研究[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2017,45(9):7−12. YANG Zhaozhong,LIU Yunrui,ZHANG Ping,et al. Study on fracturing and slicing decision method of multi layer overlay seam in East Yunnan and West Guizhou[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2017,45(9):7−12.

[50] YANG Zhaobiao,ZHANG Zhengguang,QIN Yong,et al. Optimization methods of production layer combination for coalbed methane development in multi–coal seams[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,2018,45(2):312−320.

[51] 姜杉钰,康永尚,杨通保,等. 云南恩洪煤层气区块单井多煤层合采方式探讨[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2018,46(2):80−89. JIANG Shanyu,KANG Yongshang,YANG Tongbao,et al. Combined CBM drainage of multiple seams by single well in Enhong block,Yunnan Province[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2018,46(2):80−89.

[52] 吴财芳,刘小磊,张莎莎. 滇东黔西多煤层地区煤层气“层次递阶”地质选区指标体系构建[J]. 煤炭学报,2018,43(6):1647−1653. WU Caifang,LIU Xiaolei,ZHANG Shasha. Construction of index system of “Hierarchical progressive”geological selection of coalbed methane in multiple seam area of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2018,43(6):1647−1653.

[53] 秦勇,吴建光,张争光,等. 基于排采初期生产特征的煤层气合采地质条件分析[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(1):241−257. QIN Yong,WU Jianguang,ZHANG Zhengguang,et al. Analysis of geological conditions for coalbed methane co–production based on production characteristics in early stage of drainage[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(1):241−257.

[54] 黄华州,桑树勋,苗耀,等. 煤层气井合层排采控制方法[J]. 煤炭学报,2014,39(增刊2):422−431. HUANG Huazhou,SANG Shuxun,MIAO Yao,et al. Drainage control of single vertical well with multi–hydraulic fracturing layers for coalbed methane development[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2014,39(Sup.2):422−431.

[55] 雍晓艰,周梓欣. 阜康白杨河矿区合层排采影响因素分析[J]. 煤炭与化工,2017,40(10):1−5. YONG Xiaojian,ZHOU Zixin. Analysis of affecting factors of multi–layer drainage at Fukang Baiyanghe mining area[J]. Coal and Chemical Industry,2017,40(10):1−5.

[56] 秦勇,申建. 论深部煤层气基本地质问题[J]. 石油学报,2016,37(1):125−136. QIN Yong,SHEN Jian. On the fundamental issues of deep coalbed methane geology[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,2016,37(1):125−136.

[57] 黄华州,桑树勋,毕彩芹,等. 煤层群煤系多套含气系统特征及其合采效果:以铁法盆地阜新组为例[J]. 沉积学报,2021,39(3):645−655. HUANG Huazhou,SANG Shuxun,BI Caiqin,et al. Characteristics of multi –gas –bearing systems within coal seam groups and the effect of commingled production:A case study on Fuxin Formation,Cretaceous,Tiefa Basin[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,2021,39(3):645−655.

[58] 谭玉涵,郭京哲,郑峰,等. 气井多层合采渗流特征及接替生产物理模拟[J]. 石油与天然气地质,2015,36(6):1009−1015. TAN Yuhan,GUO Jingzhe,ZHENG Feng,et al. Physical simulation on seepage features of commingled production and right time of production conversion for gas wells[J]. Oil & Gas Geology,2015,36(6):1009−1015.

[59] 王璐,杨胜来,刘义成,等. 缝洞型碳酸盐岩气藏多层合采供气能力实验[J]. 石油勘探与开发,2017,44(5):779−787. WANG Lu,YANG Shenglai,LIU Yicheng,et al. Experiments on gas supply capability of commingled production in a fracture –cavity carbonate gas reservoir[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,2017,44(5):779−787.

[60] LIU Guangfeng,MENG Zhan,LUO Dayong,et al. Experimental evaluation of interlayer interference during commingled production in a tight sandstone gas reservoir with multi–pressure systems[J]. Fuel,2020,262:116557.

[61] 朱华银,胡勇,李江涛,等. 柴达木盆地涩北多层气藏合采物理模拟[J]. 石油学报,2013,34(增刊1):136−142. ZHU Huayin,HU Yong,LI Jiangtao,et al. Physical simulation of commingled production for multilayer gas reservoir in Sebei gas field,Qaidam Basin[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,2013,34(Sup.1):136−142.

[62] 王文举,潘少杰,李寿军,等. 致密气藏高低压多层合采物理模拟研究[J]. 非常规油气,2016,3(2):59−64. WANG Wenju,PAN Shaojie,LI Shoujun,et al. Physical simulation of high–pressure and low–pressure multilayer production of tight gas reservoir[J]. Unconventional Oil & Gas,2016,3(2):59−64.

[63] 徐庆岩,于靖之,王雪芹,等. 特低渗透油藏多层合采物理模拟研究[J]. 科技通报,2015,31(9):49−53. XU Qingyan,YU Jingzhi,WANG Xueqin,et al. Physical simulation study of commingle production for ultra–low permeability multilayer reservoir[J]. Bulletin of Science and Technology,2015,31(9):49−53.

[64] 胡勇,李熙喆,万玉金,等. 高低压双气层合采产气特征[J]. 天然气工业,2009,29(2):89−91. HU Yong,LI Xizhe,WAN Yujin,et al. Gas producing property of commingled production for high –low pressure double gas reservoir[J]. Natural Gas Industry,2009,29(2):89−91.

[65] 郭平,刘安琪,朱国金,等. 多层合采凝析气藏小层产量分配规律[J]. 石油钻采工艺,2011,33(2):120−123. GUO Ping,LIU Anqi,ZHU Guojin,et al. Study on production distribution laws of single layers in commingling condensate pool[J]. Oil Drilling & Production Technology,2011,33(2):120−123.

[66] 徐轩,朱华银,徐婷,等. 多层合采气藏分层储量动用特征及判定方法[J]. 特种油气藏,2015,22(1):111−114. XU Xuan,ZHU Huayin,XU Ting,et al. Separated reserve producing characteristic and determination in multi –layer commingled producing gas reservoir[J]. Special Oil and Gas Reservoirs,2015,22(1):111−114.

[67] 许江,张超林,彭守建,等. 多层叠置煤层气系统合采方式及其优化[J]. 煤炭学报,2018,43(6):1677−1686. XU Jiang,ZHANG Chaolin,PENG Shoujian,et al. Multiple layers superposed CBM system commingled drainage schedule and its optimization[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2018,43(6):1677−1686.

[68] WANG Ziwei,QIN Yong. Physical experiments of CBM coproduction:A case study in Laochang district,Yunnan Province,China[J]. Fuel,2019,239:964−981.

[69] GUO Chen,QIN Yong,SUN Xueyang,et al. Physical simulation and compatibility evaluation of multi–seam CBM co–production:Implications for the development of stacked CBM systems[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2021,204:108702.

[70] 许江,李奇贤,彭守建,等. 不同层间压差条件下叠置含气系统的定产合采试验研究[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2020,48(1):46−53. XU Jiang,LI Qixian,PENG Shoujian,et al. Experimental study on commingled production with constant–rate of a multi–superimposed gas system under different interlayer pressure difference[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2020,48(1):46−53.

[71] 彭守建,贾立,许江,等. 叠置煤层气系统合采渗透率动态演化特征及其影响因素[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(10):3501−3511. PENG Shoujian,JIA Li,XU Jiang,et al. Dynamic evolution and its influencing factors of coal seam permeability during joint gas production of superimposed CBM system[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(10):3501−3511.

[72] 石迎爽,梁冰,薛璐,等. 多层煤层气藏合采特征及物理模拟实验方法研究[J]. 实验力学,2019,34(6):1010−1018. SHI Yingshuang,LIANG Bing,XUE Lu,et al. Study on the characteristics of multi–layer CBM reservoir mining and the experimental method of its physical simulation[J]. Journal of Experimental Mechanics,2019,34(6):1010−1018.

[73] 梁冰,石迎爽,孙维吉,等. 层间距对双层煤层气藏合采解吸影响实验[J]. 中国矿业大学学报,2020,49(1):54−61. LIANG Bing,SHI Yingshuang,SUN Weiji,et al. Experiment on influence of inter layer spacing on combined desorption of double –layer coalbed methane reservoir[J]. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology,2020,49(1):54−61.

[74] MENG Shangzhi,LI Yong,WANG Lei,et al. A mathematical model for gas and water production from overlapping fractured coalbed methane and tight gas reservoirs[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2018,171:959−973.

[75] 李勇,孟尚志,吴鹏,等. 煤系气合采产出数值模拟研究[J]. 煤炭学报,2018,43(6):1728−1737. LI Yong,MENG Shangzhi,WU Peng,et al. Numerical simulation of coal measure gases co–production[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2018,43(6):1728−1737.

[76] 李勇,王延斌,孟尚志,等. 煤系非常规天然气合采地质基础理论进展及展望[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(4):1406−1418. LI Yong,WANG Yanbin,MENG Shangzhi,et al. Theoretical basis and prospect of coal measure unconventional natural gas co–production[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(4):1406−1418.

[77] 冯其红,张先敏,张纪远,等. 煤层气与相邻砂岩气藏合采数值模拟研究[J]. 煤炭学报,2014,39(增刊1):169−173. FENG Qihong,ZHANG Xianmin,ZHANG Jiyuan,et al. Numerical simulation of commingling production for coalbed methane and adjoining sandstone gas reservoirs[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2014,39(Sup.1):169−173.

[78] 李立功,康天合,张晓雨,等. 煤–砂岩复合储层煤系气渗流模型及数值模拟研究[J]. 矿业研究与开发,2019,39(4):43−47. LI Ligong,KANG Tianhe,ZHANG Xiaoyu,et al. Percolation model and numerical simulation of coal –based gas in coal –sandstone composite reservior[J]. Mining Research and Development,2019,39(4):43−47.

[79] GUO Chen,QIN Yong,WU Caifang,et al. Hydrogeological control and productivity modes of coalbed methane commingled production in multi –seam areas:A case study of the Bide–Santang Basin,western Guizhou,South China[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2020,189:107039.

[80] ZHAO Yanlong,WANG Zhiming. Effect of interlayer heterogeneity on multi–seam coalbed methane production:A numerical study using a gray lattice Boltzmann model[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2019,174:940−947.

[81] 张先敏,吴浩宇,冯其红,等. 多层合采煤层气井动态响应特征[J]. 中国石油大学学报(自然科学版),2020,44(6):88−96. ZHANG Xianmin,WU Haoyu,FENG Qihong,et al. Dynamic characteristics of commingled coalbed methane production in wells with multi –layer coal seams[J]. Journal of China University of Petroleum(Edition of Natural Science),2020,44(6):88−96.

[82] WANG Chaowen,JIA Chunsheng,PENG Xiaolong,et al. Effects of wellbore interference on concurrent gas production from multi–layered tight sands:A case study in eastern Ordos Basin,China[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2019,179:707−715.

[83] 申建,张春杰,秦勇,等. 鄂尔多斯盆地临兴地区煤系砂岩气与煤层气共采影响因素和参数门限[J]. 天然气地球科学,2017,28(3):479−487. SHEN Jian,ZHANG Chunjie,QIN Yong,et al. Effect factors on co –mining of sandstone gas and coalbed methane in coal series and threshold of parameters in Linxing Block,Ordos Basin[J]. Natural Gas Geoscience,2017,28(3):479−487.

[84] RIPEPI N,LOUK K,AMANTE J,et al. Determining coalbed methane production and composition from individual stacked coal seams in a multi –zone completed gas well[J]. Energies,2017,10(10):1533.

[85] 汤达祯,赵俊龙,许浩,等. 中–高煤阶煤层气系统物质能量动态平衡机制[J]. 煤炭学报,2015,40(1):40−48. TANG Dazhen,ZHAO Junlong,XU Hao,et al. Material and energy dynamic balance mechanism in middle –high rank coalbed methane(CBM) systems[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2015,40(1):40−48.

[86] YANG Zhaobiao,LI Yangyang,QIN Yong,et al. Development unit division and favorable area evaluation for joint mining coalbed methane[J]. Petroleum Exploration Development,2019,46(3):583−593.

[87] 陈立超,王生维. 煤岩弹性力学性质与煤层破裂压力关系[J]. 天然气地球科学,2019,30(4):503−511. CHEN Lichao,WANG Shengwei. Relationship between elastic mechanical properties and equivalent fracture pressure of coal reservoir near wellbore[J]. Natural Gas Geoscience,2019,30(4):503−511.

[88] 孟召平,雷钧焕,王宇恒. 基于Griffith强度理论的煤储层水力压裂有利区评价[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(1):268−275. MENG Zhaoping,LEI Junhuan,WANG Yuheng. Evaluation of favorable areas for hydraulic fracturing of coal reservoir based on Griffith strength theory[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(1):268−275.

[89] 桑树勋. 煤系气高效勘探开发的岩石力学地层理论方法体系研究[R]. 国家自然科学基金委员会,重点项目,42030810,2021.01–2025.12.

[90] SU Xianbo,LI Feng,SU Linan,et al. The experimental study on integrated hydraulic fracturing of coal measures gas reservoirs[J]. Fuel,2020,270:117527.

[91] 秦勇,张政,白建平,等. 沁水盆地南部煤层气井产出水源解析及合层排采可行性判识[J]. 煤炭学报,2014,39(9):1892−1898. QIN Yong,ZHANG Zheng,BAI Jianping,et al. Source apportionment of produced –water and feasibility discrimination of commingling CBM production from wells in southern Qinshui Basin[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2014,39(9):1892−1898.

[92] CHEUNG K,SANEI H,KLASSEN P,et al. Produced fluids and shallow groundwater in coalbed methane(CBM) producing regions of Alberta,Canada:Trace element and rare earth element geochemistry[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2009,77(3-4):338−349.

[93] UNAL B,PERRY V R,SHETH M,et al. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water[J]. Frontiers in Microbiology,2012,5:175.

[94] RICE C A,FLORES R M,STRICKER G D,et al. Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane,Fort Union Formation,Powder River Basin,Wyoming and Montana U. S. A.[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2008,76(1/2):76−85.

[95] 王善博,唐书恒,万毅,等. 山西沁水盆地南部太原组煤储层产出水氢氧同位素特征[J]. 煤炭学报,2013,38(3):448−454. WANG Shanbo,TANG Shuheng,WAN Yi,et al. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope characteristics of drainage water from Taiyuan coal reservoir[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2013,38(3):448−454.

[96] ZHANG Songhang,TANG Shuheng,LI Zhongcheng,et al. Stable isotope characteristics of CBM co –produced water and implications for CBM development:The example of the Shizhuangnan Block in the southern Qinshui Basin,China[J]. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering,2015,27(3):1400−1411.

[97] WANG Bo,SUN Fenjin,TANG Dazhen,et al. Hydrological control rule on coalbed methane enrichment and high yield in FZ Block of Qinshui Basin[J]. Fuel,2015,140:568−577.

[98] 李忠诚,唐书恒,王晓锋,等. 沁水盆地煤层气井产出水化学特征与产能关系研究[J]. 中国矿业大学学报,2011,40(3):424−429. LI Zhongcheng,TANG Shuheng,WANG Xiaofeng,et al. Relationship between water chemical composition and production of coalbed methane wells,Qinshui Basin[J]. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology,2011,40(3):424−429.

[99] VAN VOAST W A,MONTANA V. Geochemical signature of formation waters associated with coalbed methane[J]. AAPG Bulletin,2003,87(4):667−676.

[100] BRINCK E L,DREVER J I,FROST C D. The geochemical evolution of water coproduced with coalbed natural gas in the Powder River Basin,Wyoming[J]. Environmental Geosciences,2008,15(4):153−171.

[101] TAULIS M,MILKE M. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well,Maramarua,New Zealand[J]. Water Research,2013,47(3):1021−1034.

[102] 郭晨,秦勇,韩冬. 黔西比德–三塘盆地煤层气井产出水离子动态及其对产能的指示[J]. 煤炭学报,2017,42(3):680−686. GUO Chen,QIN Yong,HAN Dong. Ions dynamics of produced water and indication for CBM production from wells in Bide –Santang Basin,Western Guizhou[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2017,42(3):680−686.

[103] YANG Zhaobiao,QIN Yong,QIN Zonghao,et al. Characteristics of dissolved inorganic carbon in produced water from coalbed methane wells and its geological significance[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,2020,47(5):1074−1083.

[104] YANG Mei,JU Yiwen,LIU Guijian,et al. Geochemical characters of water coproduced with coalbed gas and shallow groundwater in Liulin coalfield of China[J]. Acta Geologica Sinica(English Edition),2013,87(6):1690−1700.

[105] DAHM K G,GUERRA K L,MUNAKATA –MARR J,et al. Trends in water quality variability for coalbed methane produced water[J]. Journal of Cleaner Production,2014,84:840−848.

[106] ENGLE M A,ROWAN E L. Geochemical evolution of produced waters from hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus shale,northern Appalachian Basin:A multivariate compositional data analysis approach[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2014,126:45−56.

[107] BAKAR H A,ZARROUK S J. Geochemical multiaquifer assessment of the Huntly coalfield,New Zealand,using a novel chloride –bicarbonate –boron ternary diagram[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2016,167:136−147.

[108] 许耀波. 基于解吸气成分体积分数差异的煤层气合采产层判识方法[J]. 煤炭学报,2020,45(增刊1):367−376. XU Yaobo. A method for identification of CBM co–production reservoir based on the volume fraction difference of desorption gas components[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2020,45(Sup.1):367−376.

[109] ZHANG Songhang,TANG Shuheng,LI Zhongcheng,et al. Study of hydrochemical characteristics of CBM co –produced water of the Shizhuangnan Block in the southern Qinshui Basin,China,on its implication of CBM development[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2016,159:169−182.

[110] GUO Chen,QIN Yong,XIA Yucheng,et al. Geochemical characteristics of water produced from CBM wells and implications for commingling CBM production:A case study of the Bide–Santang Basin,western Guizhou,China[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2017,159:666−678.

[111] HUANG Huazhou,SANG Shuxun,MIAO Yao,et al. Trends of ionic concentration variations in water coproduced with coalbed methane in the Tiefa Basin[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2017,182:32−41.

[112] ZHANG Zheng,QIN Yong,BAI Jianping,et al. Hydrogeochemistry characteristics of produced waters from CBM wells in southern Qinshui Basin and implications for CBM commingled development[J]. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering,2018,56:428−443.

[113] ZHANG Yan,LI Song,TANG Dazhen,et al. Structure–and hydrology –controlled isotopic coupling and heterogeneity of coalbed gases and co –produced water in the Yanchuannan Block,southeastern Ordos Basin[J]. International Journal of Coal Geology,2020,232:103626.

[114] 李彬刚. 煤层气井合层排采过程中储层伤害问题研究[J]. 中国煤炭地质,2017,29(7):33−35. LI Bingang. Study on reservoir harm issue during CBM well multilayer drainage process[J]. Coal Geology of China,2017,29(7):33−35.

[115] 周效志,桑树勋,易同生,等. 煤层气合层开发上部产层暴露的伤害机理[J]. 天然气工业,2016,36(6):52−59. ZHOU Xiaozhi,SANG Shuxun,YI Tongsheng,et al. Damage mechanism of upper exposed producing layers during CBM multi –coal seam development[J]. Natural Gas Industry,2016,36(6):52−59.

[116] 傅雪海,葛燕燕,梁文庆,等. 多层叠置含煤层气系统递进排采的压力控制及流体效应[J]. 天然气工业,2013,33(11):35−39. FU Xuehai,GE Yanyan,LIANG Wenqing,et al. Pressure control and fluid effect of progressive drainage of multiple superposed CBM systems[J]. Natural Gas Industry,2013,33(11):35−39.

[117] 郭晨,秦勇,易同生,等. 黔西肥田区块地下水动力条件与煤层气有序开发[J]. 煤炭学报,2014,39(1):115−123. GUO Chen,QIN Yong,YI Tongsheng,et al. Groundwater dynamic conditions and orderly coalbed methane development of Feitian Block in western Guizhou,South China[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2014,39(1):115−123.

[118] 李鑫,傅雪海,李刚. 黔西多煤层气井递进排采与分隔排采工艺探讨[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2016,44(2):22−26. LI Xin,FU Xuehai,LI Gang. Discussion of progressive drainage and separated reservoirs drainage of multiple CBM well in West Guizhou[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2016,44(2):22−26.

[119] 胡海洋,赵凌云,陈捷. 松河井田多煤层资源开发条件及合采储层伤害特征[J]. 矿业安全与环保,2020,47(2):99−103. HU Haiyang,ZHAO Lingyun,CHEN Jie. Development conditions of multiple coal seam resources and damage characteristics of co−mining reservoirs in Songhe mine field[J]. Mining Safety & Environmental Protection,2020,47(2):99−103.

[120] 郑力会,陶秀娟,魏攀峰,等. 多储层产量伤害物理模拟系统及其在煤系气合采中的应用[J]. 煤炭学报,2021,46(8):2501−2509. ZHENG Lihui,TAO Xiujuan,WEI Panfeng,et al. Multi–reservoir production damage physical simulation system and its application in coal –measure gas production[J]. Journal of China Coal Society,2021,46(8):2501−2509.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.