Coal Geology & Exploration


A special type of multiple reflected refraction often appears in seismic records in areas with low-velocity structures. It seriously affects the closed reflection wave, which causes the distortion of the reflection wave shape and affects the correct interpretation of the seismic data. Based on the forward simulation of the multiple reflected refraction equation, the generation mechanism of multiple reflected refraction in the shallow low-velocity zones was set forth. A method of suppressing multiple reflected refraction by vertically combined dual sources was proposed. The formation parameters(formation thickness and velocity)are obtained according to the methods of small refraction and micro logging in the early stage of exploration. Firstly, according to the relative position relationship between the multiple reflected refraction and the effective wave, the prerequisites for the suppression of the multiple reflected refraction was given. Secondly, the optional range of vertical combination parameters was calculated according to the source combination formula, which was used to adjust the relative position of the two sources set vertically in the low-velocity zone. Based on the above studies, forward modeling and loess plateau exploration area tests were conducted to compare the conventional single shot records with the source vertical combination records. Models verification and practical data applications show that the vertical source combination method can suppress multiple reflected refraction in shallow low-velocity zones and effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data.


multiple reflected refraction, shallow low-velocity structures, vertical combination excitation, suppression of multiple waves




[1] 陈强,常锁亮,樊国强,等. 巨厚黄土地区煤田地震资料采集关键技术[J]. 煤田地质与勘探,2010,38(4):59-64. CHEN Qiang,CHANG Suoliang,FAN Guoqiang,et al. Research on key techniques for coalfield seismic data acquisition in thick loess area[J]. Coal Geology & Exploration,2010,38(4):59-64.

[2] 常锁亮,李莲英,张胤彬,等. 厚黄土覆盖丘陵地区煤田地震勘探方法研究[J]. 物探与化探,2002,26(6):425-428. CHANG Suoliang,LI Lianyin,ZHANG Yingbin,et al. A study of coalfield seismic exploration method in thick-loess covered hills areas[J]. Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration,2002,26(6):425-428.

[3] 李庆忠. 论地震次生干扰:兼论困难地区地震记录的改进方向[J]. 石油地球物理勘探,1983,18(3):207-225. LI Qingzhong. On the secondary interference of earthquake:Also on the Improvement direction of seismic record in difficult areas[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting,1983,18(3):207-225.

[4] 秦政. DQ地区地震噪声的判别分析[J]. 石油地球物理勘探,1990,25(1):86-102. QIN Zheng. Analysis of seismic noises in the DQ area[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting,1990,25(1):86-102.

[5] 杨恺,郭朝斌. 多次反射折射波的传播路径研究[J]. 石油地球物理勘探,2012,47(3):379-384. YANG Kai,GUO Chaobin. Propagation paths of multiple reflected refraction[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting,2012,47(3):379-384.

[6] 郭朝斌. 复杂表层多次反射折射波传播特性研究[D]. 东营:中国石油大学(华东),2011. GUO Chaobin. Study on propagation characteristics of multiple reflected refractions in complex surface layers[D]. Dongying:China University of Petroleum(Huadong),2011

[7] 曾爱平,孙立新,杜贤军. 地震勘探中多次反射折射波的影响分析及应对措施:以滕县煤田某煤矿地震勘探为例[J]. 山东国土资源,2017,33(1):71-75. ZENG Aiping,SUN Lixin,DU Xianjun. Effect analysis on multiple reflected refraction in seismic exploration and countermeasures:Setting seismic exploration in a coal mine in Tengxian coalfield as an example[J]. Shandong Land and Resources, 2017,33(1):71-75.

[8] WEGLEIN A B,HSU S Y,TERENGHI P,et al. Multiple attenuation:Recent advances and the road ahead[J]. The Leading Edge,2011,30(8):864-875.

[9] 洪菲,胡天跃,张文坡,等. 用优化聚束滤波方法消除低信噪比地震资料中的多次波[J]. 地球物理学报,2004,47(6):1106-1110. HONG Fei,HU Tianyue,ZHANG Wenpo,et al. Attenuating multiples for low signal-to-noise ratio seismic data using optimal beamforming[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics,2004,47(6):1106-1110.

[10] 戴晓峰,徐右平,甘利灯,等. 川中深层-超深层多次波识别和压制技术:以高石梯-磨溪连片三维区为例[J]. 石油地球物理勘探,2019,54(1):54-64. DAI Xiaofeng,XU Youping,GAN Lideng,et al. Deep & ultra-deep multiple suppression in Central Sichuan:An example of Gaoshiti-Moxi[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting,2019,54(1):54-64.

[11] PLASTERIE P,GAYNE M,LANGE M,et al. Shallow water 3D surface-related multiple modelling,case study[C]//Seg Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2008,2008.

[12] LIN TTY,HERRMANN,F J. Robust estimation of primaries by sparse inversion via one-norm minimization[J]. Geophysics,2013,78(3):133-150.

[13] YPMA FHC,VERSCHUUR D J. Estimating primaries by sparse inversion,a generalized approach[J]. Geophysical Prospecting,2013,61:94-108.

[14] 王维红,井洪亮. 基于稀疏反演三维表面多次波压制方法[J].地球物理学报,2015,58(7):2496-2507. WANG Weihong,JING Hongliang. 3D surface-related multiple elimination based on sparse inversion[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics,2015,58(7):2496-2507.

[15] 宋家文,李培明,王文闯,等. 基于稀疏反演的高效混采数据分离方法[J]. 石油地球物理勘探,2019,54(2):268-273. SONG Jiawen,LI Peiming,WANG Wenchuang,et al. High-productivity blended acquired data separation by sparse inversion[J]. Oil Geophysical Prospecting,2019,54(2):268-273.

[16] SHERIFF R E, GELDART L P. Exploration seismology[M]. Cambridg:Cambridge University Press,1995.

[17] CERVENY V. Theory of seismic head waves[M]. Toronto:University of Toronto Press,1971.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.